1.66 - IPTC: Public transport and urban development: Improving public transport competitiveness versus the private car

Project Description

An increase acknowledgment on the need to mitigate traffic growth and reduce CHG emissions has been noticed in the past years, resulting in a growing concern on how cities ought to develop their transport systems. A main strategy for achieving this is to reduce car use through making trips short enough to be walked and cycled, while increasing the competitiveness of the public transport system versus the private car on longer trips.

In this context, IPTC aims at developing knowledge concerning how cities and public transport systems ought to be developed to increase the competitiveness of public transport (and walking and cycling) versus the private car, and which changes in planning and decision-making processes have to be made if development is to be steered in this direction.IPTC.jpg

For this reason, the project will investigate relevant processes and plans, identify critical issues affecting whether processes result in plans with high or low goal achievement potentials regarding the improvement of public transport competitiveness versus the private car. It will focus mainly on land use and transport planning at local and regional level, and on urban areas.

This investigation will also map out which planning support tools Norwegian and Portuguese planners know and use in current relevant planning processes when analysing effects on public transport competitiveness, and what planning practice defines as needs for new or improved tools.

In the final part of IPTC, we will synthesize the findings and develop policy recommendations concerning how land use and transport systems ought to be developed in order to improve public transport competitiveness versus the private car, as well as how planning and policy-making processes need to change to accomplish plans and developments with higher goal achievement potentials in this matter.

The research is organized as case-studies in nine Norwegian and three Portuguese cities. We collaborate with the Institute of Transport Economics of the Norwegian Centre for Transport Research in parts of the Project.

Research Team


  • Cecília Silva (Coordinator)
  • Nayanne Guerra Castro
  • Catarina Cadima
  • Tamara Bicalho

TOI - Institute of Transport Economics – Norway

  • Aud Tennøy (Project manager)
Financial Support
  • Norwegian Research Council 2017 – 2020 through the Institute of Transport Economic – TOI
Stage of Progress
  • Concluded in 2020

Files related to this project
  • Report: Using Accessibility Measures to reveal Public Transport Competitiveness compared to the car pdf.png


Silva, C., Cadima, C., Castro, N., & Tennoy, A. (2021). Public transport strategy: Minimal service vs. competitor to the car. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 14(1), 1275–1294. https://doi.org/10.5198/jtlu.2021.1982